Outbreaks of the virus exceeded 13 million worldwide on Monday, an increase of one million in just 5 days, according to Reuters
- Understanding how, when and under what circumstances The new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is spreading from human to human is crucial for formulating effective public health measures to prevent COVID-19 infection and to terminate transmission chains.
- Evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted primarily by direct, indirect, or close contact with infected individuals through infected secretions, such as saliva and respiratory secretions, or through respiratory droplets, which are excreted when an infected person coughs. sighs, talks or sings.
- THE airborne transmission of the virus It can occur in healthcare settings, where specific medical aerosol-forming procedures produce very small droplets called “aerosols”. There have also been reports of aerosol transmission in combination with droplet transmission in other non-hospital settings, such as during a choir practice, in restaurants, or in fitness classes.
- Respiratory droplets from infected individuals may also be deposited on objects, creating contaminated surfaces (fomites). People can become infected by touching these surfaces and then touching their eyes, nose or mouth without applying hand hygiene.
- Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurs mainly by individuals who have overt clinical symptoms or shortly before they develop symptoms, when they are very close to an infected person for an extended period of time. Someone is also possible asymptomatic carrier to spread the virus to others, however it is not clear to what extent and under what conditions it occurs.
- The WHO considers that high quality research is urgently needed to clarify the contribution of different routes of transmission and in particular the role of airborne transmission in the absence of aerosol production processes, the dose of virus required for effective human-to-human transmission, the circumstances and risk factors for virus over-dispersal events, as well as the role of asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic transmission.
To prevent transmission, the WHO recommends a comprehensive set of measures that include:
- Identify suspicious cases as soon as possible, perform diagnostic tests and isolate all suspicious cases in appropriate places.
- Trace, identify and quarantine all close contacts of confirmed cases and check for symptoms and special care if necessary.
- Use of a cloth mask in public places where there is transmission to the community and where other preventive measures are not possible, such as physical distance.
- Use of special contact precautions and droplets by healthcare workers caring for suspected and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases and in addition the use of special precautions when performing aerosol production procedures.
- Continuous use of medical masks by healthcare workers and patient caregivers during all daily activities throughout the shift.
- Always practice frequent hand hygiene and physical distance from others when possible. Avoid crowded places, places of close congestion, as well as closed areas with insufficient ventilation. Ensuring good environmental ventilation in all enclosed spaces and ensuring proper environmental cleaning and disinfection.
At the same time, the General Director of WHO Tetros Antanom Gebregesous He stressed on Monday 13 July that the new coronavirus pandemic has the potential to worsen much more if all states do not adhere to basic health precautions. “Let me be honest, too many countries are heading in the wrong direction, the virus remains the number one public enemy,” he said.
“If the basics are not followed, the only way this pandemic will develop is to get worse and worse and worse. “But that does not have to be the case.”