The Russian vaccine against coronavirus, which, thanks to the hype in the press, everyone expected in early autumn, will appear no earlier than January-February 2021. This is reported by Interfax, citing a source in the government.
Which institution will be the first? Every man has heard the vaccine of the Center. Gamalei. But this is not the only contender for the championship. At least three more research institutes can finish with him. Today, four Russian vaccines are already considered effective and safe. Two are in final stages of clinical trials, and two more will begin testing soon.
“Search” tried to understand the pros and cons of each of them.
Center them. Chumakov and their inactivated vaccine
At the Center for Research and Development of Immunobiological Products named after Chumakov, a so-called inactivated vaccine is being developed. To put it simply, this is a method in which the virus is grown under controlled laboratory conditions, then killed by heat treatment or under the influence of cellular poison (formaldehyde), purified and as a result the necessary drug is obtained.
Pros: no risk of the disease against which they are introduced and ease of production;
Minuses: the risk of a non-long-term immune response, to achieve an immune response of sufficient strength, large doses and their repeated administration are required;
“We have carried out inactivation of the virus, its purification and concentration – and now we are already producing a dosage form and testing the effect of the drug on monkeys,” said Director General of the Center, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Aydar Ishmukhametov. – We plan to start clinical trials in December. It should be noted that the coronavirus is still poorly understood. Therefore, when developing recombinant vaccines (ed. They contain a “naked” protein and lack other molecular structures often necessary to trigger an immune response) surprises are possible that may delay development. I think – that recombinant, vector vaccines are our bright future, they are pie in the sky. And our vaccine is the fat tit that we have in our hands. An important factor and the ability to quickly deploy production. We looked at our capabilities – we are able to give 7-10 million doses per year. “
It is important to note that the formation of herd immunity in Russia will require about 70 million doses of the vaccine.
Center them. Gamalei and the Center for Virology “Vector” and their vector vaccines
Such vaccines are obtained by the method of genetic engineering, where weakened viruses or bacteria are used as a carrier vector, into which fragments of the genome of another pathogen, to which immunity is to be developed, are “inserted”. In this case, Covid-19.
The only difference is that as a vector in the Center. Gamalea is a human adenovirus, and in “Vector” – a virus of influenza A, measles and vesicular stomatitis (by the way, it is on its basis that the current American vaccine against Ebola was created).
Pros: long-term immune response, safe;
Cons: bye are not widely used, the development of such vaccines against HIV, influenza did not bring the desired result;
“The technology for creating a vaccine against coronavirus at the Gamaleya Center is patented, unique and surpasses foreign analogues. The technology behind the vaccine has been developed over the past 25 years. The drug is two-component – this allows you to create long-term immunity, ”said Alexander Gintsburg, Director of the Gamaleya Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology.
Institute for Experimental Medicine and their live vaccine
Vaccines of this type are produced directly from a live virus weakened in the laboratory, i.e. based on SARS-CoV-2.
Pros: persistent immune response, continuous antigenic stimulation and, as a result, the formation of memory cells;
Minuses: the risk of disease and side effects, since they contain live microorganisms.
“We have extensive experience in developing live vaccines. Live vaccines work great against measles, polio, mumps. We successfully worked on influenza, – said the head of the Department of Virology. Smorodintseva IEM, professor Larisa Rudenko. – But the vaccine against coronavirus is special – it is not just live, but also vector. This vaccine has many advantages: firstly, intronasal administration – in other words, you do not need to inject an injection, just drip nose drops. The vaccine does not provoke an unwanted immune response. Finally, this vaccine will be active against influenza infections. That is, scientists, in fact, received two vaccinations “in one bottle.” If the coronavirus really becomes a seasonal infection, such a vaccine will be a real godsend. “
Virologist, Professor Anatoly Altstein confirmed: “It would be the best vaccine, it stimulates an excellent immune response, which is almost equal to the immune response to a wild-type pathogen infection. However, this is a long and rather dangerous job, because you have to give guarantees that this virus is really weakened and safe. It takes a long time. “.
Experts are confident that vector vaccines are the future. However, no vaccine in the world has been approved until after 4 years of testing. Let’s hope for the best and, perhaps, next year we will be able to return to the usual rhythm of life.